A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Russian Academy of Sciences

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A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences

The Institute of Physics of Atmosphere was founded by Alexander Obukhov in 1956  by reorganization of the Geophysical Institute AN of the USSR (the Resolution of Presidium AN of the USSR from 06.01.1956) for the purpose of studying of the basic processes in atmosphere.

Academician Alexander Mihajlovich Obuhov was the organizer of Institute and it's permanent director before the death on December, 3rd, 1989. In 1995 to the Institute A.M.Obuhova's name has been appropriated.
The Institute has three scientific stations: Zvenigorodskaya in the Moscow region, High-mountain around Kislovodsk and Tsimljansky in the Rostov region which provide carrying out of supervision, fields and scientific researches.

Institute of physics of atmosphere of A.M.Obuhova of the Russian Academy of Sciences is one of leading centers of science of the country and the world in the field of a science about atmosphere. Here problems of the theory of a climate, dynamics and physics of atmosphere, structure of atmosphere and its transformation, physics and chemistry of the top atmosphere, atmospheric optics, spectroscopy and acoustics are solved by modern theoretical and experimental methods.

Staff of Institute in the time of organization made 116 persons, including 36 scientists, of them 4 doctors and 10 candidates of science.

In development of the basic lines of activity of Institute, formation of a kernel of its collective and the organization of scientific researches took part B.M.Bovsheverov, G.S.Golitsyn, A.S.Gurvich, V.I.Dianov-Klokov, V.I.Krasovsky, A.S.Monin, G.V.Rosenberg, V.I.Tatarsky, E.M.Fejgelson, A.M.Jaglom and others.

Institute works on problems of turbulence of atmosphere are widely known. A.M.Obuhovu together with A.N.Kolmogorov belongs the formulation of the theory of local homogeneous and isotropic turbulence for fluctuation of speed. Later (1949) academician has developed the theory of fluctuations for pressure and a passive impurity, including temperature (opening is registered 296 from 10.19.1984). On the basis of these laws for the first time in the world A.M. Obuhov theoretically proved and under the direction of V.M.Bovsheverova develpoed acoustic methods of measurement of turbulent sound scattering (1958) that had allowed to create an acoustic radar - sodar.
Created  by A.S.Moninym and A.M.Obuhovym the theory of similarity (1953,1954) turbulent ground layers of the atmosphere, passed the first experimental check at Tsimljansky scientific station IAP, and up to day it's the essential block of all existing climatic models.

In IAP has arisen and has received wide recognition in the world a new direction of researches - distribution of waves (light, sound and radio-waves) in turbulent atmosphere which was based by the A.M.Obuhov and has developed V.I.Tatarsky. The combination of the theory and experiments allowed to open the phenomenon <Law of increase in return dispersion of waves> (registered 359 from 12.2.1988, S.S.Kashkarov's authors - (IAP), JU.A.Kravtsov, V.I.Tatarsky (IAP), A.G.Vinogradov, A.S.Gurvich (IAP)). For the results received in researches in this direction, employees IAP of A.S.Gurvichu, V.I.Kljatskinu, A.M.Obuhovu and V.I.Tatarskomu the government award of the USSR for 1990 has been awarded.

A.M.Obuhovym in 1962 receives the general equation of evolution of a potential whirlwind under influence non-adiabatic factors. He has applied concept of a potential whirlwind to the diagnosis of large-scale atmospheric processesfor the first time  that is now used in a long-term weather forecast and its diagnosis.

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