Докладчик: Георгий Стенчиков (Научно-технологический университет имени короля Абдаллы (KAUST), Саудовская Аравия)
"Эффект извержения вулкана Пинатубо в июне 1991 на региональный климат Ближнего Востока" Аннотация
Impact of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption on the regional climate of Middle East
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. This could be partially attributed to the forced positive phase of North Atlantic oscillation (NAO); however, many other processes interfere. To better understand MENA climate variability and the interplay among regional mechanisms, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are calculated using weather observations, NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory’s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). The multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), NAO, Indian summer monsoon and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling, making it two to three times stronger than the global mean response to volcanic impact. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits slightly different spatial patterns of the NAO climate response compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.